The National Lesbian & Gay Journalists Association (NLGJA) is made up of working journalists and media professionals. We are not an advocacy group. Our mission is to ensure fair and accurate coverage of issues that affect the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) communities.
Today, the person we have previously known as Bruce Jenner revealed preferred pronouns, and her new name, Caitlyn. Many newsrooms have questions about how to cover people who are or may be transgender. NLGJA is here to help you ensure your coverage is not only fair, but accurate.
Here are a few tips, as well as some information from our stylebook on how to handle things such as pronouns and terminology. There’s even more on our website, NLGJA.org.
- Now that Jenner has publicly announced a gender identity, the best practice is to refer to Caitlyn Jenner by the name she announced. Example: “Today, the person we have previously known as Bruce Jenner revealed, her new name, Caitlyn, and gender in Vanity Fair magazine.”
- Transgender people should be referred to by the name and gender with which they identify. Some transgender people choose to take hormones or have medical procedures, but that’s not what determines the right name and pronoun to use. It is stating one’s gender identity that is what should guide word use. Jenner should be referred to as she and her. Example “Jenner is well known for her athletic accomplishments prior to transitioning, when she was known as Bruce Jenner. Jenner won a gold medal in the 1976 decathlon.”
- Because of the amount of attention and speculation prior to Jenner speaking publicly about her gender, it may be appropriate today to refer to Jenner’s birth name higher up in a story, but all subsequent references should use her preferred name and pronouns. It is general best practice is to allow individuals to address their gender or sexuality on their terms.
Words matter when telling a story. Research has shown that LGBT teens and young adults have one of the highest rates of all suicide attempts. Depression and drug use among LGBT people have both been shown to increase significantly after new laws that discriminate are passed. Bullying of LGBT youth has been shown to be a contributing factor in many suicides, even if not all of the attacks have been specifically aimed at someone based on sexual orientation or gender bias. Transgender people are twice as likely to be unemployed — and four times as likely if they’re a trans woman of color. Lesbians and gays outnumber trans people six to one, yet transgender people are 50 percent more likely to be murdered.
NLGJA is happy to be a professional resource for you. We offer a stylebook on common word choice and tip sheets on issues that affect our communities. You can find both at nlgja.org/resources. NLGJA also has professional development available through our Newsroom Outreach Program. The project was designed to help newsrooms better understand the complexities of covering our diverse communities, while remaining unbiased. Please feel free to contact us if we can be of assistance. We have members in local, national and international newsrooms who are experienced covering these types of issues.
Thank you for your time and attention.
The National Lesbian & Gay Journalists Association
Here is some information from the NLGJA Stylebook on LGBT Terminology that might be particularly useful:
If a source shares transgender or gender-nonconforming identity, it is best practice to ask for preferred pronouns. Be cautious that a person’s pronouns may not correspond with the gender that may be associated with one’s name or appearance. Also, do not assume transgender status or include it if it is not germane to the story.
When writing about events prior to when the person began living publicly as a different gender, NLGJA recommends avoiding a mix of different pronouns within a story by using the person’s first name at the time, using the last name as appropriate, or using a structure is clear about the timeline but avoids the need to reference the name.
Example: “Chelsea Manning, formerly known as Bradley, came out as transgender last week. In a statement, Manning said she had felt this way since childhood. Manning grew up in Oklahoma. In middle school, Manning was very outspoken in class about government issues and religious beliefs, friends said. She continues to be outspoken about her beliefs.”
Some transgender people prefer “they” as a singular pronoun or non-standard pronouns such as “he.” If your outlet’s style rules allow unconventional pronouns, it is acceptable to explain in the story that the source prefers it.
Example: Rory, who uses the pronoun ‘they,’ said they support the bill.”
In many cases, especially those in which the subject’s pronoun preference isn’t known, the story may be more accurate and flow better if pronoun use is avoided rather than risk use of the incorrect one.
Example:“Rory has been involved with the group for three years. ‘This cause has been important to me since high school,’ the teenager said.”
Transgender people identify as the gender that is different from the sex they were assigned at birth. A transgender woman was assigned to be male at birth; a transgender man was assigned to be female at birth.
In general, use the name and personal pronouns that are consistent with how the individual lives publicly. When unsure and if possible, ask what the subject prefers.
Only reference transgender status if the person has self-identified as such and it is germane to the story. In instances when it is unclear and impossible to ask what name or pronoun a subject prefers, cite the source of the information (e.g., the police).
Be especially sensitive when covering transgender individuals who have been victims of crime, as to not re-victimize them. When covering violence against transgender individuals, be careful of sensationalizing the crime; avoid describing the victim’s clothing or genital characteristics. Avoid giving the impression that the victim is being deceptive about his or her identity. If police suspect the crime was motivated by anti-transgender bias, state that.
Be particularly sensitive when covering transgender women of color, who are disproportionately affected by anti-transgender hate crimes. If police characterize a victim as “a man in a dress,” make an effort to determine if the victim identified as transgender. If it cannot be determined, be sure to cite who provided information about the victim in your story. If possible, provide context for the reader, who may be unfamiliar with issues faced by transgender people, such as those surrounding legal name changes and lack of anti-discrimination protections.
The NLGJA Stylebook on LGBT Terminology offers advice on many terms often used when reporting on transgender individuals:
An individual’s emotional and psychological sense of having a gender; feeling like a man, woman, both or neither (gender nonconformity). Does not necessarily align with an individual’s sex at birth.
Medical diagnosis that identifies the unhappiness people experience when they feel their outward appearance of gender does not align with their mental and emotional state. This diagnosis given to transgender people is often a prerequisite to receive hormones or other transitioning treatments. Gender dysphoria replaces the outdated term “gender identity disorder.”
The appearance, traits and/or mannerisms an individual presents to communicate their gender identity. Any traits (masculine, feminine, androgynous) can be present in people of any gender or gender expression. Gender expression may or may not match biological sex.
gender identity disorder
Avoid this outdated medical term, which has been replaced by “gender dysphoria.”
When a gender identity or expression does not necessarily conform to the gender binary. Avoid the related academic term “gender variant.”
The process by which transgender people change their physical, sexual characteristics from those associated with their sex at birth. This process occurs over time and may include adopting the aesthetic markers of the new gender; telling one’s family, friends and/or co-workers; changing one’s name and/or sex on legal documents; hormone therapy; and sometimes, but not always, surgery or other body modification procedures. Not synonymous with sexual reassignment. Avoid the outdated term “sex change.”
Avoid unless used in academic writing.
An individual who intentionally does not conform to predominant binary gender roles or expression. Use only if self-referential or in a quotation where there is a compelling reason. As an adjective, “gender-bending.”
Avoid this outdated term.
People born with sex chromosomes, external genitalia or an internal reproductive system that is not considered standard for either males or females. Parents and physicians usually will determine the sex of the child, resulting in surgery or hormone treatment. Many intersex adults seek an end to this practice. Avoid the outdated term “hermaphrodite.”
Avoid this antiquated term.
The medical and surgical process by which transgender people change their physical, sexual characteristics to reflect their gender identity. May include surgery and/or hormone therapy. Sexual reassignment surgery can be a part of gender transition but is not necessary. Not all transgender people choose to or can afford to have such surgery. Avoid overemphasizing the role of surgery in the transition process. Avoid the outdated term “sex change.”
Refers to individuals whose gender identity and/or expression may not match their physical, sexual characteristics or sex assigned at birth. Some female and male cross-dressers, drag queens or kings, female or male impersonators and intersex individuals may also identify as transgender. Use the name and personal pronouns that are consistent with how the individual lives publicly. When possible, ask which term the source prefers.
Do not use “transgendered.” Offensive when used as a noun. As a noun, use “transgender people,” “transgender man” or “transgender woman.” In cases where space is an issue, such as headlines, using “trans” as a shorthand adjectival form is acceptable.
Transgender people may use a number of terms to describe themselves. For more guidance on transgender terminology and coverage, visit the NLGJA Journalists Toolbox.
A person who was assigned female at birth but identifies and/or lives as a man. In statistics, the abbreviation FTM, or female-to-male, may be used. Usually shortened colloquially to trans man, it should be used only when the subject prefers it and when transgender status is germane; otherwise, identify a news subject as a man.
A person who was assigned male at birth but identifies and/or lives as a woman. In statistics, the abbreviation MTF, or male-to-female, may be used. Usually shortened colloquially to trans woman, it should be used only when the subject prefers it and when transgender status is germane; otherwise, identify a news subject as a woman.
Fear, hatred or dislike of transgender people, and/or prejudice and discrimination against them by individuals or institutions. May be harbored by gays, lesbians, bisexuals, heterosexuals and transgender people themselves.
Avoid this outdated term in favor of “transgender” and “transgender people” unless a person or community prefers the term; it can carry misleading medical connotations.
Avoid this antiquated term.
A Native American believed to possess a mixture of masculine and feminine spirits. Some, but not all, identify as gay, lesbian, bisexual or transgender. Should not be used as a blanket term for LGBT Native Americans. Use only when the subject prefers it.
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